Memory: Memory is commonly referred to as RAM and is the temporary internal storage areas in the computer. Primary and secondary are the two basic types of memories. Memory determines the size and number of programs that can be executed simultaneously as well as the amount of data that can be processed instantly.
Primary memory is used for storing data and instructions temporarily when the processing unit is working on the data. Secondary memory comprises of storage devices like hard drives and floppy drives which act as permanent storage mediums. The computer memory is measured in bits and bytes. These two terms are explained in Storage topic.
There are two kinds of memory in a computer:
1. Read-only memory (ROM)
It is a memory chip that stores instructions and data permanently in the computer to which the user has
no access that means you cannot write or change the data stored in ROM. It contains information that
the computer needs to start up or boot. The contents are created while manufacturing and cannot be T
2. Random access memory (RAM) it
It is the computers primary storage area. It is also called as read and write memory because you can read as well as write data in RAM. It is data contained in documents, spreadsheets, graphics and databases. This data must be temporarily stored in RAM before the software can use the processor to manipulate it.
Buffer is a temporary storage area in a RAM enabling the CPU to manipulate data before transferring it to a device. All information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is shut down. Two factors that control the effectiveness of RAM are the speed of the chips and the algorithm used to store data in RAM. To the left, there are eight individual RAM chips.
C e n t% a
Cache is a special high-speed storage mechanism. It can be a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device. Memory caching and disk caching are the two types used in personal computers.
Basic input/output system (BIOS): It acts as an interface between the hardware and the operating system. This is a program that the personal computer's microprocessor uses to get the computer system started (booting) after you turn it on. It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse and printer.
The BIOS is placed in a ROM chip, which makes it available all the time. Modern day PC's have BIOS which is recorded on i\ash memory.